1 Parameters of water purity
2 Purification methods
2.2 Double distillation
2.3.1 Co-current deionization
2.3.2 Counter-current deionization
2.3.3 Mixed bed deionization
2.6 Other processes
3.1 Laboratory use
3.1.2 Electrical conductivity
3.2 Industrial uses
3.3 Other uses
4 Mineral consumption
Purified water is water that has been mechanically filtered or processed to remove impurities and make it suitable for use. Distilled water was, formerly, the most common form of purified water, but, in recent years, water is more frequently purified by other processes including capacitive deionization, reverse osmosis, carbon filtering, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, ultraviolet oxidation, or electrodeionization. Combinations of a number of these processes have come into use to produce ultrapure water of such high purity that its trace contaminants are measured in parts per billion (ppb) or parts per trillion (ppt).
Purified water has many uses, largely in the production of medications, in science and engineering laboratories and industries, and is produced in a range of purities. It is also used in the commercial beverage industry as the primary ingredient of any given trademarked bottling formula, in order to maintain product consistency. It can be produced on-site for immediate use or purchased in containers. Purified water in colloquial English can also refer to water that has been treated ("rendered potable") to neutralize, but not necessarily remove contaminants considered harmful to humans or animals.
Parameters of water purity
Purified water is usually produced by the purification of drinking water or ground water. The impurities that may need to be removed are:
inorganic ions (typically monitored as electrical conductivity or resistivity or specific tests)
organic compounds (typically monitored as TOC or by specific tests)
bacteria (monitored by total viable counts or epifluorescence)
endotoxins and nucleases (monitored by LAL or specific enzyme tests)
particulates (typically controlled by filtration)
gases (typically managed by degassing when required)
Distilled water is produced by a process of distillation. Distillation involves boiling the water and then condensing the vapor into a clean container, leaving solid contaminants behind. Distillation produces very pure water. A white or yellowish mineral scale is left in the distillation apparatus, which requires regular cleaning. Distilled water, like all purified water, must be stored in a sterilized container to guarantee the absence of bacteria. For many procedures, more economical alternatives are available, such as deionized water, and are used in place of distilled water.
Double-distilled water (abbreviated "ddH2O", "Bidest. water" or "DDW") is prepared by slow boiling the uncontaminated condensed water vapor from a prior slow boiling. Historically, it was the de facto standard for highly purified laboratory water for biochemistry and used in laboratory trace analysis until combination purification methods of water purification became widespread.
Large cation/anion ion exchangers used in demineralization of boiler feedwater.
Deionized water (DI water, DIW or de-ionized water), often synonymous with demineralized water / DM water, is water that has had almost all of its mineral ions removed, such as cations like sodium, calcium, iron, and copper, and anions such as chloride and sulfate. Deionization is a chemical process that uses specially manufactured ion-exchange resins, which exchange hydrogen and hydroxide ions for dissolved minerals, and then recombine to form water. Because most non-particulate water impurities are dissolved salts, deionization produces highly pure water that is generally similar to distilled water, with the advantage that the process is quicker and does not build up scale.
However, deionization does not significantly remove uncharged organic molecules, viruses, or bacteria, except by incidental trapping in the resin. Specially made strong base anion resins can remove Gram-negative bacteria. Deionization can be done continuously and inexpensively using electrodeionization.
Three types of deionization exist: co-current, counter-current, and mixed bed.